Using the Federal Census of Georgia for 1860, 881 of the 1,315 men serving in the regiment at one time or another during the Civil War can be
identified.' The 1850 Census surfaced 170 more.' Of these 1,051 found,
occupations can be ascertained for 766 of them. Many could not be found due to errors, incomplete enumeration, or the fact that their families did not yet live in one of the regimental source counties. Over 200 men can be
identified but have no occupation listed, again most likely because of
incomplete recording. Almost without exception the soldiers appearing in the 1850 census are minor children not old enough to work.'

The census statistics overwhelmingly connect the rank and file of the 44th
Georgia with agricultural pursuits. No less than 324 of 766 (42 percent)
have "farmer" as their occupation. This figure would undoubtedly be higher if all heads of households had an occupation listed. The occupation title of farmer may be misleading because census takers used it to describe everyone from the owners of the largest plantations to the smallest farmer with a net worth of less than $100 in 1860.94 "Farm laborer," "laborer," and "day laborer" are grouped with each other and together appear as the second most numerous occupation with 214 (30 percent). Men listing this line of work most often appeared as sons of a farmer. Their father or widowed mother could be either an affluent planter or a small independent farmer.

An additional thirty-nine (5 percent) list their work as "farm manager" or
"overseer." Large farms and plantations needed an efficient overseer to run the demanding and complex operation and, in many cases, direct the work of slave labor. Combining farmer, farm laborer, and overseers, the 44th Georgia sample indicates that nearly eight out of ten men serving in the regiment worked the soil directly for a living. This overseer figure is also a good clue that many of the 44th Georgia men came from farms not large or prosperous enough to need an overseer.

The fourth most numerous occupation appearing in the census for future 44th Georgia soldiers in 1860 is that of ninety-two "students" (12 percent)." Men with this occupation in 1860 often appear in the households of farming families, but the families are generally higher on the economic scale.  Whether the young men attended school away from home or helped out in the fields when not going to school, they also depended on the soil and the cotton cash crop system through their families.

The typical 44th Georgia soldier unquestionably depended on the cotton-based agricultural system then in place for his livelihood. If he did not work the soil directly, then he usually plied a trade that directly or indirectly serviced those who did. If he operated a large farm, he invariably owned slaves to work the operation. Even many small farmers used one or two slaves to assist them in the fields. Any threat to the Southern economic system threatened the men's prewar existence and most felt it would be worth resisting by force of arms, if necessary. This factor, probably equal to or more than any other, influenced the cohesion of the regiment and gave the men great staying power even through the most difficult and trying circumstances.

By and large, the typical 44th Georgia soldier firmly believed in the
Almighty. He also felt that He at least approved of or understood the
Southern side. This attitude is woven throughout the many pieces of
correspondence and diary entries that survive from the regiment. Four
ministers actively served in the 44th Georgia ranks as common soldiers, not counting the few men who filled the post of Regimental Chaplain.  Privates William Sanders in Company K, Alfred Freeman in Company
B, Emory F. Anderson in Company C, and Captain Hitchcock in Company F all maintained church congregations prior to enlisting. It is extremely likely
that some of their congregational flocks served in the ranks with them. All
of the former ministers undoubtedly used the pulpit to endorse service in
the Confederate Army to men in their respective companies and the regiment as a whole. Although these military ministers' influence ended in mid-summer 1862 when the last of them left the service,  their presence and vocal support of the 44th Georgia helped to set a religious foundation for the regiment's confidence that the mission they undertook was indeed a worthy one. This feeling helped hold the regiment together.

The 44th Georgia's initial leadership came largely from men of some means and influence. The regimental commander practiced law, as did the commander of Company B. The captains from Company A and Company C practiced medicine.  The initial leaders of Company D and Company K shared the title of educator.  Company H's first captain stumped middle Georgia as a politician. The captains from Companies E and I could be called very successful farmers. The minister leading Company F rounded out the list of distinguished men elected to the first leadership posts on March 4, 1862.  These men, individually and as a group, led their communities before the Civil War. They assumed leadership roles in the community because of professional skill, business acumen, force of personality, popularity, or combinations of them. The soldiers knew the mem and trusted them because the leaders' performances before the war in responsible positions merited such trust. With only a couple of exceptions, the initial leadership did not let the men down as long as they served.

The men initially elected as lieutenants shared that same trust from the
local communities. In time, with the death or disabling of the captain, the
lieutenants moved up by election to the head of the company. Their places as lieutenants usually went, by vote, to one or more of the group of sergeants and corporals initially elected at the first musters. The sergeants and corporals might initially be less affluent, but they still occupied places of influence in their home counties because of character and respect earned before the war broke out. As with the captains, the corporals and sergeants that moved up provided steady, solid leadership before and after election to the officer ranks. This leadership factor helped unite the regiment to a common purpose during the struggle. Indeed, it can be argued that the leaders on election merely swapped work clothes for uniforms and continued to exert their leadership. It is highly likely that the leaders expected to return to those civilian leadership roles after the war. It is also highly likely that these leaders exerted pressure on themselves to give the best possible care and concern for their men. The rank and file soldiers also expected them to do so and supported their leadership with followership to make the regiment a responsive, cohesive unit.

In the 44th Georgia, a man in the ranks with no blood relative or relative
by marriage in the same company represented a rare exception and not the rule. Again referring to the 1860 and 1850 census figures and the 1,051 men who can be found there, the number of blood relations is staggering. No less than 114 pairs of brothers served, including two sets of twins. Three brothers serving together appear twenty-three times, and sets of four brothers surfaced five times.

Of the 1051 44th Georgia soldiers confirmed in the 1860 and 1850 census
lists, a brother relationship affected at least 317 men. In addition there
are eleven father and son pairings identified affecting another wenty-three
men, because one man had two sons serving with him. This equates to 31
percent of the 1,051 men identified, nearly one in every three, having a
close blood relative in the ranks alongside him

Not all family relationships can be identified by the census records, but it
is reasonable to assume the the presence of, for example, four households
enumerated next to each other with a less than typical last name like
"Osborne" shared a blood relationship. While these instances abound in the census records for 44th Georgia families, this fact alone could not justify their inclusion as a blood relation. However, it does indicate that if these relationships could be confirmed, the number of 44th Georgia soldiers having one or more blood relation cousin, uncle, or nephew when combined with the brother and father and son figures would push the total much higher than the proven 31 percent.

Married men routinely appear in the ranks of the 44th Georgia, with 313 or
just over 29 percent of the 1,051 men identified in the census records
appearing as married before the war. Between 1860 and 1862 many men married to start their own families. The marriage to a local female virtually
assured a married 44th Georgia soldier had at least one, and sometimes many more, relatives by marriage serving with him. A complete study of marriage records from the ten source counties, when combined with 
the blood relations, almost certainly would put the percentage of men
serving with one or more relatives to nearly two out of three.

By way of illustration, of the ten original company captains, a blood
relative in the regiment can be easily identified for nine of them. In seven
cases, it is a brother, and in the other two cases it is a father and son
relationship. Captain Hitchcock of Company F served with a son, and Captain Huie of Company G entered service with two of his boys." Captain Peebles of Company A is an excellent example of relatives in a company. Peebles joined with his twin brothers. He married a Weems girl before the war, and three of his Weems brothers-in-law served with him in the company. So did another brother-in-law, Private Henry Moore, who had
married Peebles' sister.' Peebles' relationships are probably very common
throughout the 44th Georgia companies.

By any interpretation, the 44th Georgia Infantry could be justifiably called
a family organization. This factor helped to hold the regiment together as
the men in the ranks as well as the families at home shared the grief from
double, triple and sometimes quadruple losses to one extended family from one particular battle. After losing a relative in battle, the men were
reluctant to go home and risk soiling the sacrifice of the dead. They
preferred to stick it out to the end until their own death, disablement, or
the end of the war. Although the families justifiably worried about their
soldier relative's safety, they generally supported this view.

The 44th Georgia trained as a unit to break in groups of recruits just twice
during the war, initially at Camp Stephens and once more at Camp McIntosh.  At no other time did the regiment experience a large group of new inductees, virtually guaranteeing stability.' The men standing in the ranks in Griffin and Goldsboro provided the faces seen in the ranks at Appomattox. This helped the regiment to start together, train together, and stay together. The same can be said for the regimental junior leadership. In the initial weeks of organization at Camp Stephens, the regiment trained under leaders that would be out front for much of the remainder of the war. The men may have had their performance
recognized with a promotion by vote, but the core formed and drilled at Camp Stephens and Camp McIntosh furnished many of the future leaders. Generally, the junior corporals became sergeants and then lieutenants and the men felt comfortable following them.


I would like to thank Mr. Scott T. Glass for this information, and a job very well done.

The Battle History of the 44th Georgia Vol. Inf.

     Formed by Governor Joseph Brown on March 10 1862 was sent to Camp of Instructions at Camp Stephens outside Griffen.   Ten companies from the counties of middle Georgia assembled, to form the 44th Regiment of Georgia Infantry. Some owned slaves, however, the majority did not. The regiment was mustered into Confederate service on March 17, 1862.  April 4 1862 moved to Goldsboro NC.  They wer Brigade with 1,3 NC and 3 Arkansas under Gen John Walker Holmes Division.  On April 7, the 44th Georgia left for Virginia under Colonel Robert A. Smith.

     Stopping over briefly in Goldsboro, NC the regiment was brigaded under General J.G. Walker with the 3rd Arkansas and the 1st and 3rd North Carolina and assigned to the Division of Gen. T.H. Holmes. the division hastened by rail to Richmond to help in the crisis of McClellan's threatening Richmond.

    May 27 1862 ordered to Richmond Va. to stop Gen McClellan advance.  June 1 1862 Battle of Seven Pines they were on picket duty they 48 Georgia replaced 3 Arkansas in the brigade Ripley is replaced Walker Gen.Hill assumed the Division Command.  June 26 1862 Battle of Mechanicsville attested the Union line at Beaver Dam Creek with heavy looses 335 out of 514 men. July 1, 1862 at Malvern Hill under heavy Union fire lost 13 Dead and 16 wounded. July 3 moved back to Richmond Va. to rest

     Once arriving in Richmond on June 1, the men posted pickett duty until the 26th. The regiment suffered its first battle casualty on June 5, 1862. After being assigned to Ripley's Brigade, the 44th Georgia went into action at Mechanicsville on June 26. The regiment was ordered to charge Union breastworks in the face of supporting artillery fire across a flooded millrace at Ellerson's Mill. The 44th did so with elan, but endured one of the highest regimental casualty rates of the entire Civil War, including the loss of Col. Smith. Brave acts such as this would help save Richmond.

     After the Seven Day's Battles, the regiment marched in the 2nd Manassas Campaign and splashed across the Potomac River on Septembeer 5, 1862 on Gen. Robert E. Lee's first invasion of Maryland.  September 17 at Antietam lie between Mumma farm and the Dunkard Church ignited the Union in Millers cornfield drove back the Union and help to rescue Gen. John Bell Hood's Texas Brigade.  The East Woods, and the maelstrom of the Cornfield.   Gen. Ripley was wounded and replaced with Colonel Doles out of ammunition moved back to the west woods near Dunkard church.  17 Killed 65 wounded 4 missing out of 62 men.   After that battle, the regiment operated in the Shenandoah with Gen George Doles assuming command of the brigade.

    Moved back to the Shenandoah valley were Colonel John B. Estes took command of the 44th. In December 1862 while in Front Royal was order to returned to Fredericksburg on Gen. Lee right under Gen Jackson after Fredericksburg returned to Front Royal for the winter.

     On January 19, 1863, the 12th and 21st Georgia joined the 4th and 44th in the realignment of Dole's Brigade. These four regiments would stay together for the rest of the war.

     In January 1863 the 12 and 21 Georgia replaced the NC units to make all Georgia Brigade moved to Rodes Division of Jackson Corps. On April 29 1863 ordered back to Fredericksburg Va.  May 1 1863 on the Orange Plank road near Chancellors Ville Rodes Division lead the flanking Maneuver. Assaulted union near Chancellor house and drove the union army with heavy losses 13 killed and 64 wounded.   The 44th Georgia participated in Jackson's flank march at Chancellorsville on May 2 and the smashing charge that afternoon, capturing numerous prisoners and some pieces of artillery. 

    That stunning success was followed up at Gettysburg on the first day when men of the 44th pursued retreating Federals through the streets of Gettysburg itself.    On July 1 on the extreme left with the Union 11 corps in front of them.  July 2, 1863 was part of Gen Early's attack on Cemetery Hill was not order to advance of the 364 men 18 killed 41 wounded and 16 missing.21% loses.   It was at Gettysburg that the 44th Georgia lost a second regimental commander, Col. Samuel P. Lumpkin, in action. 

    After the retreat from Gettysburg, the regiment marched and counter marched during the Mine Run Campaign before camping for the winter. During the cold months the regiment shared pickett duty on the Rapidan River. 

    Returned back to Orange Court house till May 4 1864 Wilderness union attack the 4th Georgia exposing there left had to wheeled to the left to meet the attack.  May 7, 1864 at Spotsylvania at the Mule shoe they fought hard but where outnumber 5 to 1 Union General Upton said" Absolute refused to yield the ground" they were forced to leave with 26 Killed 28 wounded and 182 captured.  The unit never regained turn fighting strength again.

    On May 4, 1864, the regiment broke winter camp to grapple with Union forces in almost 60 days of constant combat. The next day, the regiment also participated in one of the few night attacks of the civil war on the same day. After two more days in contact with the Federals, the men marched to Spotsylvania. May 10, 1864, was the darkest day of the war for the 44th Georgia. Just before dusk, the Federal forces massed twelve regiments in column and broke into the brigade's breastworks. Men had time to fire at most one shot and 200 of the 44th were instantly captured, including the third regimental commander lost to combat, Col. William H. Peebles. The rest of the regiment fought savegly hand to hand as documented by many men receiving bayonett wounds. Only this desperate fighting finally drove the Federals out and recaptured all the lost ground. The survivors of the 44th Georgia continued fighting with the Army of Northern Virginia at the Bloody Angle, North Anna, and Cold Harbor. Here Gen. Doles was killed in action and was replaced by Gen. Philip Cook.

     Lee detached Cook's Brigade and sent it with Gen. Early on the Valley Campaign of 1864. The 44th Georgia crossed the Potomac heading north for the third time and closed on the outskirts of Washington, D.C. with Early in mid-July before retiring. The regiment suffered in the reverses of Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek before rejoining Lee in the Petersburg trenches for the winter of 1864-65. Col. Peebles, recently exchanged, was wounded at Winchester and lost to the 44th again, this time for the rest of the war.

     In Autumn 1864 was with Gen Early's Shenandoah Valley campaign   The 44th clawed its way into the Union line around Ft. Stedman in the Army of Northern Virginia's last offensive action on March 25, 1865. The regiment lost a fifth commander in action when Cpt. Thomas R. Daniel was wounded and captured. It would evacuate its trenches one week later and begin movement to Appomattox, but not before several members of the regiment fought in the heroic delaying action at Ft. Gregg.

     Despite a rapid pace, hunger , and other trying circumstances, the 44th Georgia kept its march order on the way to Appomattox. The officer ranks were so depleted that Cpt. John Tucker was loaned from the 21st Georgia to command the regiment. Five officers and seventy five men would answer the surrender roll before returning to Georgia to till the soil, restart their businesses and have a reunion with the families they had left three years and two days earlier.  They were at Appomattox on April 9 1865.

     Over the course of the war, the 44th Georgia Infantry fought in over 50  major engagements and numerous, uncounted skirmmishes. The regiment would lose over 350 killed in action and over 450 wounded. The 44th soldiers proved their bravery in each engagement. Perhaps, though, they should be noted most for their loyalty-only four soldiers deserted during three years of war and hardship.
There were only 62 surveyors present for duty out of the original 1115 men in 1862.  The facts show that the 44th Georgia suffered a greater casualty in killed and wounded in proportion to the number carried into action than any other regiment of the Southern side.  The 44th Georgia was ranked 8 of the 10 best Confederate Regiments.  Ranked 10th 65.1% at Mechanicsville in the Greatest Parentage loss in a Single Action




      Walkers Brigade, Department of North Carolina (April - June 1862)
      Ripley's Brigade, D. H. Hill's Division, Army of Northern Virginia (June - September 1862)
      Ripley's-Doles'-Cook's Brigade, D. H. Hill's_Rodes' Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia (September 1862 - June 1864)
      Cook's Brigade, Rodes'-Grimes' Division, Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia (June - December 1864)
      Cook's Brigade, Grimes' Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia (December 1864 - April 1865)



      This regiment was formed from Henry, Jasper, Clarke, Clayton, Spalding, Putnam, Fayette, Pike, Morgan, and Greene counties. It surrendered at Appomattox with 4 officers and 73 men.

      The 44th was combined with the 3rd Arkansas, the 1st North Carolina and the 3rd North Carolina to form a brigade under Brig. Gen. John G. Walker, in the division of Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes. After the battle of Seven Pines, the 48th of Georgia replaced the 3rd Arkansas and Brig. Gen. Roswell Ripley succeeded Walker.

      After the Battle of Antietam, the 44th was placed under the command of Colonel George Doles of the 4th of Georgia.

      Only 52 men of the original 1,115 remained at Appomattox. As Captain John Harris remembered years later, "The impartial historian, when he collects up the facts and figures, will show that the 44th Georgia Regiment suffered a greater casualty in killed and wounded, in proportion to the number carried into action, than any other regiment on the Southern side."

    Doles Cook Brigade Staff

    • Doles, George Pierce (November 1, 1862, Promoted to Brigadier General. June 2, 1864, Killed near Cold Harbor.)
    • Cook, Phillip (August 5, 1864, Promoted to Brigadier General. Captured in Richmond, Virginia hospital, April 3, 1865.)


      Estes, John B. - Colonel
      Lumpkin, Samuel P. - Colonel
      Peebles, William H. - Colonel
      Smith, Robert A. - Colonel
      Beck, James W. - Lieutenant
      Adams, Joesph W. - Major
      Banks, Richard O. - Major
      Key, John C. - Major
      Near Seven Pines (skirmish) - June 15, 1862
      Seven Days Battles - June 25 - July 1, 1862
      Beaver Dam Creek - June 26, 1862
      Gaines' Mill - June 27, 1862
      Malvern Hill - July 1, 1862
      South Mountain - September 14, 1862
      Antietan - September 17, 1862
      Fredericksburg - December 13, 1862
      Chancellorsville - May 11-14, 1863
      Gettysburg - July 1-3, 1863
      Bristoe Campaign - October 1863
      Mine Run Campaign - November - December 1863
      The Wilderness - May 5-6 1864
      Spotsylvania Court House - May 8-21, 1864
      North Anna - May 23-26, 1864
      Cold Harbor - June 1-3, 1864
      Lynchburg Campaign - May - June 1864
      Monocacy - July 9, 1864
      3rd Winchester - September 19, 1864
      Fisher's Hill - September 22, 1864
      Cedar Creek - October 19, 1864
      Petersburg Siege - May - June 1864 - April 1865
      Fort Stedman - March 25, 1865
      Appomattox Court House - April 9, 1865


      Company A - Henry County - Weems Guards
      Company B - Jasper County - Jasper Volunteers
      Company C - Clark County - Johnson Guards
      Company D - Clayton County - Estes' Guards
      Company E - Spalding County - Freeman Rangers
      Company F - Putnam County - Putnam Volunteers
      Company G - Fayette County - Huie Guards
      Company H - Pike County - Pike Volunteers
      Company I - Morgan and Henry County - Morgan and Henry Volunteers
      Company K - Green County - Green Volunteers